Here, you can find out more about what tyres are made of and discover the functions of particular elements. Read on for a description of tyre construction methods used in various tyre types - not just conventional vehicles.

A tyre is a more complicated product than you might think. It is built of several different elements which influence its driving characteristics. We can distinguish between the basic and additional elements. This will help to find out about the influences particular parts of a tyre may have.

Basic elements – Obligatory ones

Inner liner

  • This is an air and water resistant layer of rubber which replaces the inner tube in tubeless tyres.
  • It is made of butyl (a synthetic rubber), which is an air-resistant mixture.
  • One of the inner liner’s main features is its high tolerance to oxidising agents, acids and alkalines.
  • It is intended to minimalise the loss of air, as well as protect internal elements against air, ozone and water ingress.
Elements found within common tyre types

Elements found within common tyre types

Textile layer – Carcass

  • This is a textile material composed of cord treads, constituting a unique tyre contour.
  • A passenger car tyre will consist of 1,2 or 3 textile layers, each between 1 and 1.5 mm in thickness.
  • The textile layer is intended to keep the tyre in shape under inner pressure and to transfer the tuning, braking and speeding workload.

Bead wires

  • These are rugged wires making several coils.
  • Bead wires make it possible to mount tyres on the rims.
  • Every tyre contains two bead wires surrounded by a layer of textile carcass

Bead filler

  • A bead filler is a profiled rubber layer, stiffening the bead seat and ensuring that the bead wire remains in place.
  • It is responsible for the wear life of a tyre, it’s steering behaviour and driver comfort.

Bead bundle

  • It ensures the resistibility of a tyre and its long wear life.
  • It separates the bead wire from the wheel rim.
  • The bead bundle is made of material enabling minimum wear during its constant contact with the wheel rim.

Side wall

  • The side wall is the rubber used to protect tyres. It shields them against any scratches, abrasions or other environmental factors, including ultraviolet rays, differences in temperature, chemical agents and more.
  • Anti-aging ingredients are the main component in the rubber mixture for this particular part.

Steel belt

  • This part consists of steel netting which forms the wheel armament.
  • There are typically two of these belts in a tyre
  • The purpose of steel belts in radial tyres is to better forward the driver’s commands from the steering wheel to the road, improving the steering behaviour of a car.


  • Treads are designed to ensure good steering behaviour, adhesion, wear-resistance, and good turning behaviour.
  • It also helps provide a reduction of both tyre rolling resistance and the volume of noise.
  • The tread mixture includes synthetic and natural rubbers.
  • There are further additional elements, such 
Inner liner penetration of the textile cord threads

Inner liner penetration of the textile cord threads

Supplementary elements – Additional

Isolation bundle

  •  This is the rubber located on the edge of the belts which protects the carcass against damage that may be caused by the steel belt threads.

Cap ply

  • Cap ply is a textile material forming a stabilising belt over the crown ply.
  • Usually, it is a narrow bundle, consisting of several threads of rubber cord.
  • It is of great importance when it comes to the appropriate high speed resistance.

Rubber chafer

  • This is a profiled rubber layer placed both above and around the bead filler.
  • It helps to improve a car’s traction, strength and stiffness.

Bead reinforcement

  • This consists of textile and steel cord piles stiffening the tyre bead seat.
  • These are used in so-called low bead models.

Bead filler

  • A rubber supplement used as an undercoat, placed between the bead bundle and the NC layer.

Sidewall reinforcement

  • This is a rubber layer that strengthens the tyre in the inner shoulder zone, preventing inner liner penetration into the layer of textile threads.


  • A rubber layer reducing heat in the face of a tyre and protecting the steel belts.

The influence of tyre elements on the performance.

Sidewall Bead wires
(bead seat)
of the form
Grip on
wet road
small not applicable small small big big medium
Grip on
dry road
small not applicable small medium big big medium
Driving big not applicable big big big big big
Durability medium medium medium medium big big big
Tyre rolling
medium small small medium big medium small
Noise medium small big medium small big medium
Comfort medium small big big medium big big
As you can see, there are plenty of elements that go into tyre. The right combination of these can help improve your driving experience and comfort, among other factors.